In this corner, weighing in at 105.6 carats, reflecting light like it has done it for centuries, is the one, the only — Koh-i-Noor diamond! In all the other corners are, well, the entire global community: the British Royal Family, the entire country of India, and skeptical historians are ready to duke it out over the rightful claim to this hefty hunk of bling.
The diamond is one of the most precious and most historied additions to the UK’s Crown Jewel collection, but as the years tick by, more and more people are calling for the famed gemstone to be returned to its country of origin. As the Brits have told it, the diamond was given to them as a gift, but that’s not the whole story.
It goes by Koh-i-Noor, Kohinoor, and Koh-i-nur, but it’s also fair to call it a big ole’ diamond. Its name translates from the original Persian and Hindu-Urdu to mean “Mountain of Light.”
Rather than glitter on Queen Elizabeth’s neck like a massive disco ball, the sought after jewel lies dormant, heavily guarded, taken out only for special occasions. So, by royal standards, you’re more likely to set eyes on a unicorn.
The Royals keep the massive jewel stowed away in bombproof cases along with all their other most precious valuables. It’s kept next to the Tudor Crown and St. Edward’s Crown in the Tower of London’s vault dubbed the Jewel House.
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But the famed diamond wasn’t always in the clutches of the British Royal family. In fact, it has a complicated and bloody past that paints a grim portrait of the Royals…
The first mentions of the Koh-i-Noor popped up in 1628. Nestled inside the heart of a peacock, the jewel was the prominent focal point of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan’s aptly named Peacock Throne.
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Funnily enough, the Koh-i-Noor wasn’t the most sought after jewel attributed to the throne. The Mughals were more impressed by the fiery color of the Timur Ruby, which was later determined to be a red spinel and not even a ruby at all.
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Mughal rulers were sitting pretty in their jewel-encrusted throne, presiding over a flourishing empire, for more than a century. That is until the temptations of their thriving realm caught the eye of power-hungry nations.
In 1769, the great diamond found a new owner when Persian emperor Nader Shah stormed the city of Delhi, ruthlessly seizing power and, of course, carrying away the Peacock Throne.
Once Nader spotted the Koh-i-Noor, he immediately had the one-of-a-kind diamond plucked, believing a stone that rare deserved to be shown off. So, the diamond, and the Timur Ruby too, found a new resting place on the arm of Nader’s coat.
The Straits Times
From India to what is now present day Afganistan, Koh-i-Noor ping-ponged from ruler to ruler for 70 years. Finally, in 1813, the diamond made its way home to India, under Sikh ruler Ranjit Singh.
Historian and journalist Anita Anand, a co-author of the book Kohi-Noor: The History of the World’s Most Infamous Diamond, points to this moment as a shift in thinking about the jewel. It went from being an impressive treasure to a symbol of capability.
“It becomes this gemstone like the ring in Lord of the Rings, one ring to rule them all,” Anand told the Smithsonian. Ranjit Singh returned the Koh-i-Noor to India, but its security was short lived. After his death in 1839, the fragility of the next rulers left the diamond open to threats.
That’s where the British come in. They were eyeing the diamond and the temptation to add India to their vast collection of forced colonies for several years. When 10-year-old Duleep Singh took the crown in 1849, the Brits made their predatory move.
Victoria and Albert Museum
This is where the British history books veered off into a neater tale of how the jewel came into their possession. They’ve spun the events as a gift to the UK, rather than a token stolen from a bloody colonist regime.
In truth, British forces ambushed the young king, kidnapping his mother, Rani Jindan. Next, they coerced Duleep into giving up the Koh-i-Noor and handing over his claim to the Punjabi throne by making him sign the Treaty of Lahore.
Before anyone could stop it, the diamond was transported to London, where it was placed in the expectant hands of Queen Victoria. The Royals saw fit to display their haul, and 1851’s Great Exhibition was the perfect place for the debut.
Attraction seekers flocked from all over the world to witness the exhibits. When it came to glimpse Koh-i-Noor, they left disappointed. “Many people find a difficulty in bringing themselves to believe, from its external appearance, that is it anything but a piece of common glass,” printed The Times June 1851.
Prince Albert felt compelled to revamp the diamond to crown jewel standard. With a recut, and a fresh polish, the Koh-i-Noor was glitzy enough to put a disco ball to shame. Though there was one small consequence to the jewel’s makeover that no amount of diplomacy could fix.
Recutting the Koh-i-Noor reduced its size by half. Still, Queen Victoria was pleased with her new light refracting token. She had it affixed to a brooch, a most attention-grabbing accessory, and eventually, the diamond was fitted to a crown.
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The last time the diamond made a public appearance was for the funeral of the Queen Mother in 2002. The crown with the prominently placed diamond rested atop her casket. Since then, it’s been relegated to the Tower of London.
Numerous experts and historians have called into question Britain’s claim to the centuries-old diamond. Given the seedy circumstance under which it passed into their possession, the pressure for the Royals to return Koh-i-Noor to India has steadily turned up.
The Koh-i-Noor is just a cherry on the sundae as far as historical misrepresentations go; pretty much every country has moments they aren’t proud of. Sometimes the things you read in a textbook are just plain lies compared to the truths nations attempt to hush up.
The Lie: Puritan pilgrims fled Europe and sailed directly to Plymouth Rock, where the refugees quickly worked toward instilling their own pious beliefs in the Native Americans they found there. But that wasn’t the case at all.
The Truth: Pilgrims left politically tumultuous England for Holland in 1607, where they lived for 10 years. Then, worried they were losing themselves in Dutch culture, they sailed west, landing closer to Cape Cod than Plymouth Rock, but the latter became the more popular tourist spot.
The Lie: German-born theoretical physicist Albert Einstein was a lazy kid who failed out of school and performed horrendously in math, proving that anyone can skyrocket to the absolute top of their field. Really?
The Truth: Einstein started reading college textbooks at age 11. When he was 16—front row, left—he did fail the entrance exam to Zurich Polytechnic, but not because of knowledge. The exam was in French. He didn’t speak French. Still, he nailed the math portion.
The Lie: Human beings evolved from apes. Long ago, there were just a bunch of apes running around. Then, over time, the apes stood taller and got smarter—they became human, as depicted in this famous illustration. But that’s not true.
The Truth: Humans didn’t evolve from apes, and you aren’t the great-great-grandchild of the ape at the local zoo; rather, apes and humans descended from the same distant ancestor—we’re cousins, in a sense. That’s why humans and apes both exist today.
The Lie: The Egyptian Pyramids in Giza were built by slaves. After all, who else would be willing to work in the blistering desert heat hoisting nine-ton limestone slabs to the top of a tomb?
The Truth: In 1990, archeologists uncovered the tombs of pyramid workers alongside the historic structures. Egyptians hired and paid 10,000 men to work in three-month shifts, and the king gave skilled laborers—masons, carpenters—full-time positions.
The Lie: In the 17th century, Isaac Newton composed his famous law of gravity after sitting beneath a ready-to-be-picked apple tree and taking a renegade falling fruit to the dome. So what did push Newton toward his revolutionizing idea?
The Truth: While on his family’s farm, Newton saw an apple fall from a tree (which you can take a photo with today, below). It didn’t hit him in the head, but rather, made him wonder why things always fall down. At least, that’s what Newton told William Stukeley, who went on to pen a biography on the physicist.
The Lie: In an effort to find new trading routes to Asia, Christopher Columbus discovered the hunk of land we now call the United States of America—the first European to set foot on said soil. In reality…?
The Truth: Columbus landed in the Bahamas, and he never set foot on what would become the U.S.A. Even if he had, another European had done so before him: Nordic explorer Leif Erikson docked on the continent 500 years before the man often credited with the feat.
The Lie: After 10 years of siege, Greek soldiers took the city of Troy with trickery. They presented the city an enormous wooden horse as an offering. Inside hid armed soldiers, who captured the city once the horse was brought inside city walls.
The Truth: Homer probably imagined the epic ending to the Trojan War for The Odyssey. While the city of Troy did fall, historians believe the seiging army just used a battering ram like the one below that might’ve been misrepresented in oral retellings of the event.
The Lie: Ferdinand Magellan, depicted on the left, circumnavigated the globe on a four-year journey from 1519 to 1522. He became the first man ever to complete a voyage around the planet.
The Truth: Magellan never finished the trip! He took a bamboo spear to the heart in 1521 when he involved himself in the politics between the Philippines’ native tribes. Juan Sebastian Elcano, right, finished the circumnavigation with just 18 of the original 270-person crew remaining.
The Lie: American Inventor and businessman Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1879, an invention the world had never seen before. Turns out, Edison had a bit of help.
The Truth: While Edison did create, patent, and commercialize a light bulb with a long-lasting filament, others invented light bulb first. Sir Humphry Davy, left, for instance, invented one in 1800, right, but the filament burned out too quickly to be viable.
The Lie: Christopher Columbus set out on The Niña, The Pinta, and The Santa Maria to prove the earth was round, not flat; his crew was terrified that they were going to sail right off the end of the earth.
Jean Pieri / Pioneer Press
The Truth: 2,000 years before Columbus struck the New World, Greek mathematicians and great minds Pythagoras and Aristotle proved the world wasn’t flat. In fact, Columbus stumbled onto American shores in part because he grossly underestimated Earth’s circumference.
The Lie: French emperor and military expert Napoleon Bonaparte—depicted in the 1970 film, Waterloo, below—was short, and it hurt his ego. To compensate, he channeled his anger into ruthless militarism and power conquests.
The Truth: British propaganda like that below victimized the tyrant Napoleon I, calling him “Little Boney” and poking fun at his height. In truth, the leader stood at about 5’7″, the average height for a 19th-century Frenchman, but he looked small beside huge Imperial Guards.
Washington, D.C. Wasn’t Always Our Capital: Our first was Philadelphia, and we jumped around a lot after that. The list of capital locations includes Baltimore, New York City, Trenton, and even Annapolis in Maryland.
Witches Weren’t Burned On The Stake: Salem witches weren’t really set on fire. Instead, they were stoned or drowned, which gave them the chance to prove their magic powers by saving themselves. This never happened.
Walt Disney Didn’t Draw Mickey Mouse: Disney’s most famous character is definitely Mickey Mouse. And while the Mickster was Walt Disney’s idea, we actually have Ub Iwerks to thank for designing and drawing this childhood icon from ears to toes.
Disney’s Head Isn’t Frozen: Also, stop spreading the rumor Walt Disney had himself cryogenically frozen! He was actually cremated, his ashes spread in a lake. Still, it would have been cool if his ashes remained in the castle of sleeping beauty. Maybe then he’d wake up after a couple years anyway.
The Declaration of Independence wasn’t signed on the Fourth of July: Continental Congress voted and drafted it on the 2nd of July, revised it on the 4th, and it was read aloud on the 8th. The final document wasn’t signed until August 2nd. Hold the fireworks!
The First Car Was NOT American: As much as we’d like to claim this success with Ford’s Model T, German engineer Karl Benz was almost a century ahead, creating horseless carriages and patenting the first automobile in the 19th century.
Pocahontas Didn’t Love John Smith: Why on earth would Pocahontas fall in love with John Smith after he and his people invaded her land and disrespected her people? She didn’t. Pocahontas, or actually Matoaka, only saved John’s life because she wanted to preserve peace.
Thanksgiving Wasn’t A Celebration: Some experts suggest the pilgrims showed up on the Native Americans’ teepee steps because they figured they’d all be sick or dead from a plague, so it’d be easy to steal their food!
Thomas Edison Didn’t “Invent” Electricity: The only things he invented were stories, taking the findings of true inventors and patenting them. The alternating current electricity supply system was Nikola Tesla’s and the light bulb was Warren De La Rue’s.
Abraham Lincoln Wasn’t Thinking About Slaves: He did bring us the Emancipation Proclamation, but he didn’t do it out of the warmth of his heart. His focus was to save the Union no matter what happened to slaves; it just so happened that freeing them was the answer.
Feminists Don’t Burn Their Bras: There was one protest in Atlantic City, New Jersey, where bras, girdles, and high heels were burned, but that was pretty much the end of that.
Charles Lindbergh Isn’t A Hero: Not only was he not the first to cross the transatlantic in an airplane (that was done eight years earlier, in 1919, by British aviators Alcock and Brown), but he was also a Nazi-sympathizer.
The Wild West Wasn’t That Wild: You were probably led to believe that the Wild West was nothing but bank robberies and towns not big enough for two tough cowboys. The good: there were only 12 robberies during that era. The bad: gun violence has increased by over 100,000% since then. The ugly: spurs on your boots.
Cowboys Didn’t Wear Cowboy Hats: Those cowboy boots you find at Payless may have been based on historical fashion, but those giant hats you find at costume stores certainly aren’t. These bad boys opted for Bowler hats instead.
Jonathan Appleseed Was Real: …Although his last name was actually Chapman. He was a pioneer nurseryman who introduced apple trees to large parts of the Midwest and the East coast. If you love picking apples in the fall, be grateful to Johnny Chapman!
Pirates Haven’t Been Around For A Long Time: Most people guess pirates were only around until the 18th century, but they were blowing holes in ships, looting cities, and keelhauling people well into the 19th. One of the last pirates was captured in 1832.
It Is NOT Illegal To Burn The American Flag:… depending on the situation. While the act is considered radical, you are allowed to burn the flag under the first amendment, which protects the freedom of speech.
George Washington Was Not Our First President: He was our first elected president, but 14 other people before him had ruled the country under that title. Surely it wasn’t George who created this myth though; after all, he cannot tell a lie.